The Classification and Grade of Copper Clad Laminate

What is Copper Clad Laminate? Copper Clad Laminate, abbreviated to CCL, is a type of base material of PCBs. With glass fiber or wood pulp paper as reinforcing material, a CCL is a type of product through lamination with copper clad on either one si……

What is Copper Clad Laminate?

Copper Clad Laminate, abbreviated to CCL, is a type of base material of PCBs. With glass fiber or wood pulp paper as reinforcing material, a CCL is a type of product through lamination with copper clad on either one side or both sides of reinforcing material after being soaked in resin. It is the basic material of electronic industry, mainly used for processing printed-circuit boards, widely used in television, radios, computers, mobile communications and other electronic products.

How are CCLs Classified?

According to different classification standards, CCLs can be classified into various categories:

  • Based on CCL mechanical rigidity, we have rigid CCL (FR-4, CEM-1, etc.) and flex CCL. Rigid PCBs depend on rigid CCLs while flex PCBs are on flex CCLs (flex-rigid PCBs are on both rigid CCLs and flex CCLs).
  • Based on insulation material and structures, we have organic resin CCL (FR-4, CEM-3, etc.), metal-base CCL, ceramic-base CCL etc.
  • Based on CCL thickness, we have standard thickness CCL and thin CCL. The former one requires at least 0.5mm thickness while the latter can be thinner than 0.5mm. Copper foil thickness is excluded from CCL thickness.
  • Based on reinforcing material types, we have glass fiber cloth base CCL (FR-4, FR-5), paper base CCL (XPC), compound CCL (CEM-1, CEM-2).
  • Based on flame retardant grade, we have flame retardant CCL and non-flame retardant CCL.
  • Based on applied insulation resin, we have epoxy resin CCL (FR-4, CEM-3) and Phenolic CCL (FR-1, XPC).
  • Based on some performances of CCL, we have high TgCCL (Tg≥170℃), high dielectric CCL, high CTI CCL (CTI≥600V), environment-friendly CCL (no halogen, no antimony) and UV-shielded CCL.

The Common Used Grades of CCL are as Follows:

FR-1: Phenolic cotton paper, which is commonly referred to as bakelite (more economical than FR-2);

FR-2: Phenolic cotton paper;

FR-3: Cotton paper, epoxy resin;

FR-4: Woven glass, epoxy resin;

FR-5: Woven glass, epoxy resin;

FR-6: Obscured glass, polyester;

G-10: Woven glass, epoxy resin;

CEM-1: Cotton paper, epoxy resin (flame retardant);

CEM-2: Cotton paper, epoxy resin (non-flame retardant);

CEM-3: Woven glass, epoxy resin;

CEM-4: Woven glass, epoxy resin;

CEM-5: Woven glass, polyester;

AIN: Aluminium niride;

SIC: Silicon carbide.

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